This study adapted the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) into Turkish and investigated the validity and reliability of the adapted instrument. Twenty-five bilingual experts agreed on the language validity, and 49 Turkish language experts agreed on the conformity and understandability of the scale's items. Thirty-two subject matter experts' responses provided evidence for content validity. Finally, 475 college students (51.58% men) responded to the adapted scale. Based on the existing literature, several models were specified and estimated. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that only five-factor model provided fit to the data (all fit indices exceeded 0.90). Standardized factor loadings were found all positive, significant, and ranged from 0.40 to 0.78. Factors are named as the Mathematics Test Anxiety, Course Anxiety, Computation Anxiety, Application Anxiety, and Social Anxiety. All subscales were significantly correlated with the total scale score as well as among themselves. It was concluded that the adapted scale measures the construct of mathematics anxiety in Turkish college student populations.