Vision-based game design and assessment for physical exercise in a robot-assisted rehabilitation system

Erdogan H., Palaska Y., MAŞAZADE E., EROL BARKANA D., Ekenel H. K.

IET COMPUTER VISION, vol.12, no.1, pp.59-68, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1049/iet-cvi.2017.0122
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.59-68
  • Keywords: robot vision, game theory, sequential forward selection, skin temperature sensors, skin conductance, BVP, blood volume pulse, self-assessment manikin, robot-assisted rehabilitation system, gesture controls, game design, computer vision, gamification applications, robot assisted rehabilitation system, physical exercise, vision based game design, FEATURE-SELECTION, RECOGNITION, REHABROBY, EMOTION, STRESS
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Engagement is a key factor in gaming. Especially, in gamification applications, users' engagement levels have to be assessed in order to determine the usability of the developed games. The authors first present computer vision-based game design for physical exercise. All games are played with gesture controls. The authors conduct user studies in order to evaluate the perception of the games using a game engagement questionnaire. Participants state that the games are interesting and they want to play them again. Next, as a use case, the authors integrate one of these games into a robot-assisted rehabilitation system. The authors perform additional user studies by employing self-assessment manikin to assess the difficulty levels that can range from boredom to excitement. The authors observe that with the increasing difficulty level, users' arousal increases. Additionally, the authors perform psychophysiological signal analysis of the participants during the execution of the game under two distinctive difficulty levels. The authors derive features from the signals obtained from blood volume pulse (BVP), skin conductance, and skin temperature sensors. As a result of analysis of variance and sequential forward selection, the authors find that changes in the temperature and frequency content of BVP provide useful information to estimate the players' engagement.