Optimization of Baking of Rice Cakes in Infrared-Microwave Combination Oven by Response Surface Methodology

Turabi E., Sumnu G., ŞAHİN S.

FOOD AND BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY, vol.1, no.1, pp.64-73, 2008 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 1 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11947-007-0003-4
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.64-73
  • Keywords: Infrared, Microwave, Optimization, Response surface methodology, Rice cake, BREAD BAKING, GUM, FUNCTIONALITY, FORMULATION, FLOUR, FAT
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, response surface methodology was used to design gluten-free cakes made from rice flour to be baked in infrared-microwave combination oven. Two types of cake formulations containing different types of gums were used in the experiments, which were xanthan gum and xanthan-guar gum blend. The independent variables were emulsifier content (0, 3, and 6% of flour weight), upper halogen lamp power (50, 60, and 70%), and baking time (7, 7.5, and 8 min). Specific volume, surface color change, firmness and weight loss of the cakes were determined for optimization. Cakes formulated with xanthan gum had better quality characteristics than cakes containing xanthan-guar gum blend. Cakes formulated with xanthan gum and 5.28% emulsifier and baked using 60% halogen lamp power for 7 min had the most acceptable quality.