Various amounts (ranging from 0 to 2 wt%) of TiO2 and Al2O3 were mono and co-doped to tetragonal zirconia ceramic containing 3 mol% yttria (3Y-TZP) by mechanical ball milling. Powders were compacted by uniaxial pressing at a pressure of 23 MPa. The compacts were pressureless sintered at 1450 degrees C for 2 h. Density, hardness, fracture toughness, and cell attachment of the co-doped 3Y-TZP ceramics were measured with respect to dopant addition to determine the effects of the kind and amount of dopants on the properties. The results show that density decreased gradually as the amount of dopant was increased. The mechanical properties showed the maximum value when 0.5 wt% TiO2 and 1.0 wt% Al2O3 were co-doped to 3Y-TZP. Crystalline phase formation and microstructural morphology were investigated by XRD and SEM analyses to explain the variations in the properties. Co-doping of TiO2 and Al2O3 to 3Y-TZP did not have an influence on the phases present, but decreased the grain size. The co-doping also affected the cell attachment and the growth on the surface of the zirconia ceramics.