An introductory study was conducted to investigate the pyrethroid resistance of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strains in Turkey, collected from cotton fields in the Adana and Antalya provinces, through two different synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: lambda-cyhalothrin and esfenvalerate. In addition, the roles of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in this resistance mechanism were analyzed. It was found that whereas resistance ratios for lambda-cyhalothrin (LD50 levels) were 3- and 98-fold increased in the Adana and Antalya strains, respectively, esfenvalerate ratios were 3.3- and 92.3-fold increased in the Adana and Antalya strains, respectively, with respect to the susceptible strain. Furthermore, Adana and Antalya strains showed 2.4- and 2.9-fold higher GST activities than the susceptible strain, respectively. In the Antalya field strain, the minor increase in GST activity compared with the resistance levels implies that GSTs may be not greatly involved in this resistance. It also provides evidence that they could not be the only metabolic mechanism responsible for resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and esfenvalerate in H. armigera from Turkey.