C5-C12 volatile organic compounds at roadside, residential, and background locations in Ankara, Turkey: Temporal and spatial variations and sources

Kuntasal Ö., Kilavuz S. A., Karman D., Wang D., TUNCEL S. G.

JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION, vol.63, no.10, pp.1148-1162, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Concentrations of 91 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ranging from C5 to C12 were measured at three sites in Ankara, the capital of Turkey, in the summer of 2003 and winter of 2004. Samples were collected at roadside, residential and background stations at consecutive 4-hr intervals over a 24-hr period for six weeks in each season. Air samples were collected onto cartridges packed with Tenax TA and Carbopack B resins and analyzed by thermal desorption, followed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass selective detector (GC/MSD). Time resolved data provided information on ambient levels, temporal and spatial variations and sources of VOCs in Ankara. Toluene is the most abundant compound at all sites with and average concentration of 13.1 ?g m-3. The mean concentrations of benzene are 12.6, 5.2, and 2.4 ?g m-3 during winter at roadside, residential and background stations, respectively. Diurnal variation in the data together with toluene to benzene concentration ratio (T:B) that is close to 2.0 indicated the influence of traffic related emissions at residential and roadside stations during winter season. Higher T:B ratio observed at residential and background stations during summer period and correlation analysis indicated additional VOC sources. Temporal variations and low m,p-xylene to ethylbenzene ratio (mpX:E) indicated that transported air mass is the major VOC source influencing VOC concentrations measured at the background station.