Irreversible thermodynamics of triple junctions during the intergranular void motion under the electromigration forces

Ogurtani T., Oren E.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, vol.42, no.13, pp.3918-3952, 2005 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 13
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2004.11.013
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.3918-3952
  • Keywords: electromigration, interconnect failure, damage mechanics, void growth, interfaces and surfaces, diffusion, thermodynamics, COMPUTER-SIMULATION, FAILURE MECHANISMS, COUPLED SURFACE, FINITE-ELEMENT, THIN-FILMS, GROWTH, ENERGY, MODEL, DIFFUSION, FIELD
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: No


A rigorous reformulation of internal entropy production and the rate of entropy flow is developed for multi-component systems consisting of heterophases, interfaces and/or surfaces. The result is a well-posed moving boundary value problem describing the dynamics of curved interfaces and surfaces associated with voids and/or cracks that are intersected by grain boundaries. Extensive computer simulations are performed for void configuration evolution during intergranular motion. In particular we simulate evolution resulting from the action of capillary and electromigration forces in thin film metallic interconnects having a "bamboo" structure, characterized by grain boundaries aligned perpendicular to the free surface of the metallic film interconnects. Analysis of experimental data utilizing previously derived mean time to failure formulas gives consistent values for interface diffusion coefficients and enthalpies of voids. 3.0 x 10(-6) exp(-0.62 eV/kT) m(2) s(-1) is the value obtained for voids that form in the interior of the aluminum interconnects without surface contamination. 6.5 x 10(-6) exp(-0.84 eV/kT) m(2) s(-1) is obtained for those voids that nucleate either at triple junctions or at the grain boundary-technical surface intersections, where the chemical impurities may act as trap centers for hopping vacancies. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.