Technological properties of adobe building materials belonging to Neolithic period: Ulucak Höyük settlement, IOzmir Neolitik dönem kerpiç yapi malzemelerinin teknolojik özellikleri: Ulucak Höyük yerleşimi, Izmir


Erol F., TAVUKÇUOĞLU A., Saltik E. N. C.

Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, vol.37, no.3, pp.1595-1608, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 37 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.17341/gazimmfd.947185
  • Journal Name: Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Art Source, Compendex, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.1595-1608
  • Keywords: Adobe construction material, compositional properties, raw material analysis, Ulucak Hoyuk, Neolithic settlement, SOILS, LIME

Abstract

© 2022 Gazi Universitesi Muhendislik-Mimarlik. All rights reserved.Ulucak Höyük archaeological site (Kemalpaşa, Izmir) is the oldest village settlement known in Western Anatolia. The discovery of the adobe materials' original compositions belonging to Ulucak Höyük Neolithic settlement has vital importance to better understand and sustain the historical adobe technology developed in Anatolia. A comprehensive research was done on the compositional and raw material properties of adobe materials belonging to the Early and Late Neolithic periods of Ulucak Höyük settlement. The clay+silt composition, clay+silt ratio, aggregate ratio, organic matter ratio, and particle size distribution of some adobe brick, adobe block, interior plaster, and floor mortar samples were analyzed. Depending on their functions, Ulucak Höyük Neolithic adobe brick/block, floor mortar, and interior plasters differ in their unit weight, clay+silt ratio, and particle size distribution of aggregates. Mainly, (i) the use of proper soil containing mica-illite or mica-illite-kaolin types of clays in adobe mixtures, (ii) clay+silt compositions containing clay sized CaCO3 in varying proportions, and (iii) presence of coarse aggregates in the aggregate compositions, indicate that adobe products of Ulucak Höyük Neolithic settlement are qualified building materials. This qualified adobe technology existing in both the early and late Neolithic layers of Ulucak Höyük signals that this knowledge has survived for centuries. Achieved data is guiding for the production of new adobe materials that can be used in conservation studies. That knowledge is useful not only for conservation studies but also for the development of today's adobe materials and construction technologies.