The present paper aims at presenting linear and nonlinear optical properties of Bi12GeO20 single crystals grown by Czochralski method. Transmission and reflection measurements were performed in the 400-1000 nm region. The recorded spectra were analyzed considering well-known optical models. Spectral dependencies of absorption coefficient, skin depth, refractive index, real and imaginary components of dielectric function were presented. The analyses performed on absorption coefficient showed direct bandgap and Urbach energies as 2.56 and 0.22 eV, respectively. The first-and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities and nonlinear refractive index of the crystal were also reported in the present work. The results of the present paper would provide valuable information for optoelectronic device applications of Bi12GeO20.