© 2021 American Chemical Society.The design of catalysts with greater control over catalytic activity and stability is a major challenge with substantial impact on fundamental chemistry and industrial applications. Due to their unparalleled diversity, selectivity, and efficiency, enzymes are promising models for next-generation catalysts, and considerable efforts have been devoted to incorporating the principles of their mechanisms of action into artificial systems. We report a heretofore undocumented catalyst design that introduces fullerenes to the field of biocatalysis, which we refer to as fullerene nanocatalysts, and that emulates enzymatic active sites through multifunctional self-assembled nanostructures. As a proof-of-concept, we mimicked the reactivity of hydrolases using fullerene nanocatalysts functionalized with the basic components of the parent enzyme with remarkable activity. Owing to the versatile amino acid-based functionalization repertoire of fullerene nanocatalysts, these next-generation carbon/biomolecule hybrids have potential to mimic the activity of other families of enzymes and, therefore, offer new perspectives for the design of biocompatible, high-efficiency artificial nanocatalysts.