As part of the taxonomic revision of Evolvulus section Lagopodini (Convolvulaceae), a new species was found in the Brazilian Cerrado, a Neotropical biodiversity hotspot, and it is informally categorized herein as endangered. Evolvulus veadeirensis sp. nov. is characterized by the subshrub habit, slender and cylindrical stems, lanceolate leaves, leaf base that is attenuate or obtuse, and clavate stigmatic lobes. Among the species in that section, E. veadeirensis sp. nov. is more similar to E. altissimus, differing from the latter mainly by height, the shape of the leaf blade, leaf apex, and the stigmatic lobes. A diagnosis, morphological descriptions, illustrations, taxonomic comments, informal conservation status, distribution map, photographs, and an identification key for species from Chapada dos Veadeiros are presented.