This study was conducted to determine the reciprocal effects for anther culture response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using a set of 4 x 4 full diallel crosses. Both reciprocal and nuclear genetic effects were highly significant for anther culture response and useful for selection and breeding purposes. General combining ability (GCA) effects were predominant for all investigated anther culture traits. Also, significant differences for specific combining ability (SCA) effects were detected between reciprocal crosses. Although significant reciprocal differences for responding anther, callus number and green plant regeneration were recorded in some reciprocal crosses, there were no significant reciprocal differences for albino plant regeneration. The use of one parent as male or female could lead to change at the production of green plants from the F-1 hybrids and screening of inbred lines for response to anther culture, without reciprocal effects, could decrease the utilization of breeding material.