The possibility of improving the flotation efficiency of Turkish bituminous coal fines by a split feed flotation scheme was investigated in comparison with conventional single-stage flotation. Coal samples collected from the <0.6 mm fines treatment circuit of an operating washery were used in laboratory batch tests simulating single-stage and split feed flotation circuits. Collector (kerosene) and frother (iso-octanol) additions were used as major test variables. Results were evaluated on the basis of the efficiency index for metallurgical optimization purposes. Split feed flotation appeared to be a better alternative scheme from the metallurgical point of view. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.