Strength, durability, and microstructure of lime production residue glass powder binder-based geomaterial

de Jesus Arrieta Baldovino J., dos Santos Izzo R. L., Ekinci A.

ACTA GEOTECHNICA, vol.18, no.3, pp.1593-1606, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 18 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11440-022-01678-3
  • Journal Name: ACTA GEOTECHNICA
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Geobase, INSPEC, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1593-1606
  • Keywords: Durability, Glass powder, Lime production waste, Porosity, Regression, Strength, COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, GEOPOLYMER, RATIO, SOIL
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Recently, several studies introduced alternative binders or waste-based geomaterials that can be incorporated into the soil to enhance a parent soil's strength, durability, and stiffness. However, some calcium-based residue still needs to be studied for ground improvement applications. Thus, this paper introduces lime production waste and glass powder as a green binder for soil stabilization. The unconfined compressive strength (q(u)) and tensile strength (q(t)) and durability (wet-dry), and microstructure of geopolymers based on lime residue production-recycled glass powder for soil stabilization were studied for 365 days of curing. In addition, 5% of LPW and the 5%, 15%, and 30% of GP were utilized by weight. Results demonstrate that q(u) and q(t) are controlled by the novel porosity/binder index (eta/B-iv) relationship. An empirical relationship between q(u) and q(t) was measured as q(t)/q(t) between 0.10 and 0.19, independent of the curing period and the eta/B-iv index. Furthermore, due to the slow pozzolanic activity of the new binder, the LPW amounts were increased, and sodium chloride was used as a catalyst. The structure of cementing materials was identified in the mixtures. Furthermore, calcium silicates and alumino-silicate phases are generated due to CaO in the LPW, generating denser geopolymer formations and improved strength. Finally, the new materials demonstrated moderate durability under severe weather conditions and reached the threshold for adequate field strength for geotechnical applications.