During the year 2004, 178 human and 158 bovine clinical Salmonella isolates were collected across New York State to better understand the transmission dynamics and genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance among human and bovine hosts. Serotyping, sequence typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing results have been reported previously. Here we tested all isolates for phenotypic susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial drugs that are part of the National Antimicrobial Monitoring System bovine susceptibility panel. PCR was performed on a representative subset of unique isolates (n = 53) to screen for the presence of 21 known antimicrobial resistance genes (i.e., ampC, bla(TEM) (1), bla(CMY) (2), bla(PSE) (1), cat1, cat2, cmlA, flo, aadA1, aadA2, aacC2, strA, strB, aphA1-IAB, dhrfI, dhrfXII, sulI, sulII, tetA, tetB, and tetG); selected fluoroquinolone- and nalidixic acid-resistant (n = 3) and -sensitive (n = 6) isolates were also tested for known resistance-conferring mutations in gyrA and parC. Genes responsible for antimicrobial resistance were shared among isolates of human and bovine origin. However, bovine isolates were significantly more likely than human isolates to be multidrug resistant (P < 0.0001; Fisher's exact test). Our analyses showed perfect categorical agreement between phenotypic and genotypic resistance for beta-lactam and chloramphenicol. Our data confirm that resistance profiles of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and tetracycline were strongly associated with the presence of bla(CMY) or ampC, flo, aphA1-IAB, and tetA, respectively. Our findings provide evidence for the clinical value of genotypic resistance typing if incorporating multiple known genes that can confer a phenotypic resistance profile.