Million-year-old DNA sheds light on the genomic history of mammoths


van der Valk T., Pecnerova P., Diez-del-Molino D., Bergstrom A., Oppenheimer J., Hartmann S., ...More

NATURE, vol.591, no.7849, pp.265-282, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 591 Issue: 7849
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1038/s41586-021-03224-9
  • Journal Name: NATURE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Animal Behavior Abstracts, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Art Source, Artic & Antarctic Regions, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, EBSCO Education Source, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, Geobase, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Pollution Abstracts, Psycinfo, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, zbMATH, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.265-282

Abstract

Temporal genomic data hold great potential for studying evolutionary processes such as speciation. However, sampling across speciation events would, in many cases, require genomic time series that stretch well back into the Early Pleistocene subepoch. Although theoretical models suggest that DNA should survive on this timescale(1), the oldest genomic data recovered so far are from a horse specimen dated to 780-560 thousand years ago(2). Here we report the recovery of genome-wide data from three mammoth specimens dating to the Early and Middle Pleistocene subepochs, two of which are more than one million years old. We find that two distinct mammoth lineages were present in eastern Siberia during the Early Pleistocene. One of these lineages gave rise to the woolly mammoth and the other represents a previously unrecognized lineage that was ancestral to the first mammoths to colonize North America. Our analyses reveal that the Columbian mammoth of North America traces its ancestry to a Middle Pleistocene hybridization between these two lineages, with roughly equal admixture proportions. Finally, we show that the majority of protein-coding changes associated with cold adaptation in woolly mammoths were already present one million years ago. These findings highlight the potential of deep-time palaeogenomics to expand our understanding of speciation and long-term adaptive evolution.