Military expenditures and political regimes: Evidence from global data, 1963-2000

Tongur U., Hsu S., Elveren A. Y.

ECONOMIC MODELLING, vol.44, pp.68-79, 2015 (Journal Indexed in SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 44
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.econmod.2014.10.004
  • Title of Journal : ECONOMIC MODELLING
  • Page Numbers: pp.68-79
  • Keywords: Military expenditure, Income inequality, Economic growth, Political regime, Democracy, Dictatorship, INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT, INCOME INEQUALITY, PANEL-DATA, DATA SET, DEMOCRACY, PEACE, PERFORMANCE, COUNTRIES, SYSTEMS, DEMAND


This paper examines the determinants of military expenditures with a special focus on political regimes for more than 130 countries for the period of 1963-2000 by employing a dynamic panel data analysis. The paper aims at contributing to the literature by utilizing a recently constructed political regime data set and controlling for income inequality, a key variable that has not received substantial attention in the context of political regimes, economic growth and military expenditures. Covering a large set of countries and an extended time period, the paper reveals further evidence on the linkage between democracy and military expenditures. Our results yield two crucial facts. First, social democratic political regimes have a tendency to spend less on armaments as a share of the national income; compared to social democracy, all other political regimes are likely to have higher military burdens, confirming previous findings of the negative relationship between level of democracy and military burden. Second, the analysis shows that a higher income inequality is associated with a higher military burden. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.