© 2021, The Author(s).Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disability and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years. Elucidation of the molecular and structural alterations in brain tissue due to TBI is crucial to understand secondary and long-term effects after traumatic brain injury, and to develop and apply the correct therapies. In the current study, the molecular effects of TBI were investigated in rat brain at 24 h and 1 month after the injury to determine acute and chronic effects, respectively by Fourier transform infrared imaging. This study reports the time-dependent contextual and structural effects of TBI on hippocampal brain tissue. A mild form of TBI was induced in 11-week old male Sprague Dawley rats by weight drop. Band area and intensity ratios, band frequency and bandwidth values of specific spectral bands showed that TBI causes significant structural and contextual global changes including decrease in carbonyl content, unsaturated lipid content, lipid acyl chain length, membrane lipid order, total protein content, lipid/protein ratio, besides increase in membrane fluidity with an altered protein secondary structure and metabolic activity in hippocampus 24 h after injury. However, improvement and/or recovery effects in these parameters were observed at one month after TBI.