Adoption of European Union's IPPC Directive to a textile mill: Analysis of water and energy consumption

Kocabas A. M., Yukseler H., DİLEK F. B., YETİŞ Ü.

JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, vol.91, no.1, pp.102-113, 2009 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 91 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.07.012
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.102-113
  • Keywords: Best Available Techniques, IPPC Directive, Textile, Water consumption, Energy consumption, Turkey
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The present study was undertaken as part of the first application and evaluation of the BREF (Best Available Techniques; BAT Reference Document) Textile Document within the context of the European Union's Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive to a large scale textile mill in Turkey. The BAT requirements for the denim manufacturing textile mill were selected in cooperation with the factory management. Detailed mass balance calculations were conducted to evaluate the overall effect of the selected BAT options. The initial findings indicated that the adoption of the selected BAT options resulted in considerable savings in water and energy consumption in the mill. Besides the installation of flow meters and use of semi-counter current rinsing in the most water-intensive processes, minimization of wash waters in the water softening plant, reuse of the concentrate stream from the reverse osmosis plant and compressor cooling waters provided a 29.5% reduction in the total specific water consumption of the mill, reaching the lower limits suggested by the BREF Textile Document. In terms of energy consumption, use of waste heat from finishing wastewater streams in heating up the wash waters, heat insulation and maintenance applications in addition to BAT measures taken for water minimization reduced specific energy consumption by 9% achieving the limits set by the BREF Textile Document. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.