The application of silicon (Si) under heavy metal stress is well known, but the use of Si nanoparticles (NPs) under metal stress in not well documented. Thus, the experiments were performed to investigate the impacts of soil and foliar applied Si NPs on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in grains under Cd toxicity. The plants were grown under natural environmental conditions and were harvested after physiological maturity (124 days after sowing). The results demonstrated that Si NPs significantly improved, relative to the control, the dry biomass of shoots, roots, spikes and grains by 24-69%, 14-59%, 34-87%, and 31-96% in foliar spray and by 10-51%, 11-49%, 25-69%, and 27-74% in soil applied Si NPs, respectively. The Si NPs enhanced the leaf gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll a and b concentrations, whereas diminished the oxidative stress in leaves which was indicated by the reduced electrolyte leakage and enhancement in superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities in leaf under Si NPs treatments over the control. When compared with the control, the foliar spray of Si NPs reduced the Cd contents in shoots, roots, and grains by 16-58%, 19-64%, and 20-82%, respectively, whereas soil applied Si NPs reduced the Cd concentrations in shoots, roots, and grains by 11-53%, 10-59%, and 22-83%, respectively. In comparison with the control, Si concentrations significantly (p <= 5 0.05) increased in the shoots and roots in both foliar and soil supplementation of Si NPs. Our results suggested that Si NPs could improve the yield of wheat and more importantly, reduce the Cd concentrations in the grains. Thus, the use of Si NPs might be a feasible approach in controlling Cd entry into the human body via crops.