Unique Contributions of Metacognition and Cognition to Depressive Symptoms

YILMAZ A. E. , GENÇÖZ T. , Wells A.

JOURNAL OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol.142, no.1, pp.23-33, 2015 (Journal Indexed in SSCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 142 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00221309.2014.964658
  • Page Numbers: pp.23-33
  • Keywords: cognition, depression, depressive symptoms, dysfunctional attitudes, metacognition, schema, BECK ANXIETY INVENTORY, PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES, RUMINATION, THERAPY, SCALE


This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of cognitions or metacognitions to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the cognitive domain.