Copyright © 2022 Kankilic, Bayramli, Korkusuz, Eroglu, Sener, Mutlu and Korkusuz.Aims: Chronic osteomyelitis, including implant-related prosthetic joint infection, is extremely difficult to cure. We develop vancomycin containing release systems from poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) composites with beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. We ask whether vancomycin containing PDLLA/β-TCP and PLGA/β-TCP composites will prevent early biofilm formation, allow cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, and stimulate osteogenic signaling molecules in the absence of an osteogenic medium. Methods: Composites were produced and characterized with scanning electron microscopy. In vitro vancomycin release was assessed for 6 weeks. Biofilm prevention was calculated by crystal violet staining. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) and osteosarcoma cell (SaOS-2) proliferation and differentiation were assessed with water soluble tetrazolium salt and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction defined osteogenic signaling molecules for hBM-MSCs. Results: Totally, 3.1 ± 0.2 mg and 3.4 ± 0.4 mg vancomycin released from PDLLA/β-TCP and the PLGA/β-TCP composites, respectively, and inhibited early biofilm formation. hBM-MSCs and SaOS-2 cells proliferated on the composites and stimulated ALP activity of cells. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and SRY-Box transcription Factor 9 (SOX9) expressions were, however, lower with composites when compared with control. Conclusion: Vancomycin containing PDLLA/β-TCP and PLGA/β-TCP composites inhibited early biofilm formation and proliferated and differentiated hBM-MSCs and SaOS-2 cells, but osteogenesis-related RUNX2 and SOX9 transcription factors were not strongly expressed in the absence of an osteogenic medium for 14 days.