A tsunami generated by a possible submarine slide: Evidence for slope failure triggered by the North Anatolian Fault movement

Minoura K., Imamura F., Kuran U., Nakamura T., Papadopoulos G., Sugawara D., ...More

NATURAL HAZARDS, vol.36, no.3, pp.297-306, 2005 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11069-005-0319-1
  • Journal Name: NATURAL HAZARDS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.297-306
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A tsunamigenic sediment layer has been discovered in fluvio-alluvial sequences on the northern coast of the Marmara Sea, northwestern Turkey. The layer consists of unsorted silty coarse sand including terrestrial molluscs and charcoal fragments. The AMS radiometric ages of the shells have been estimated at around BC 400, AD 300, AD 400, and AD 1000. We propose that a tsunami occurred in the Marmara Sea in the middle of 11th century and invaded the fluvial plains. The older fossils were derived from the underlying horizons, and it is probable that buoyant materials such as terrestrial molluscs and charcoals were isolated from liquefied sediments during submarine sliding. Slope failure of coastal blocks triggered by fault movement generated tsunamis, which might have transported floating materials to the backshore.