Proper cell attachment and distribution, and thus stronger association in vivo between a bone implant and native tissue will improve the success of the implant. In this study, the aim was to achieve promotion of attachment and uniform distribution of rat mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts by introducing chemical and topographical cues on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) film surfaces. As the chemical cues, either alkaline phosphatase was covalently immobilized on the film surface to induce deposition of calcium phosphate minerals or fibrinogen was adsorbed to improve cell adhesion. Microgrooves and micropits were introduced on the film surface by negative replication of micropatterned Si wafers. Both chemical cues improved cell attachment and even distribution on the PHBV films, but Fb was more effective especially when combined with the micropatterns. Cell alignment (<10 degrees deviation angle) parallel to chemically modified microgrooves (1, 3, or 8 mu m groove width) and on 10 mu m-thick Fb lines printed on the unpatterned films was achieved. The cells on unpatterned and 5 mu m-deep micropitted films were distributed and oriented randomly. Results of this study proved that microtopographies on PHBV can improve osseointegration when combined with chemical cues, and that microgrooves and cell adhesive protein lines on PHBV can guide selective osteoblast adhesion and alignment. (C) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.