This paper describes a frequency-domain numerical method for predicting noise radiation from ducted fans, including acoustic treatment and non-uniform background flow effects. The method solves the Euler equations linearized about a mean flow in the frequency domain. A pseudo-time derivative term is added to the frequency-domain equations so that a time marching technique can be employed to drive the acoustic field to steady state explicitly. This approach makes distributed parallel computing more viable for equations of this type and will allow for future use of well-known convergence acceleration techniques, such as multigrid, to obtain the solutions efficiently. Simulations of the JT15D static test inlet are performed including the effects of liners, and the results are compared with experimental data. A generic engine geometry is used for demonstrating further the prediction capability of the code, calculating the attenuation effects of different liner impedances and liner installation locations on the radiated sound fields. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.