Nanomaterials have received increasing attention due to their controllable physical and chemical properties and their improved performance over their bulk structures during the last years. Carbon nanostructures are one of the most widely searched materials for use in different applications ranging from electronic to biomedical because of their exceptional physical and chemical properties. However, BN nanostructures surpassed the attention of the carbon-based nanostructure because of their enhanced thermal and chemical stabilities in addition to structural similarity with the carbon nanomaterials. Among these nanostructures, one dimensional-BN nanostructures are on the verge of development as new materials to fulfill some necessities for different application areas based on their excellent and unique properties including their tunable surface and bandgap, electronic, optical, mechanical, thermal, and chemical stability. Synthesis of high-quality boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in large quantities with novel techniques provided greater access, and increased their potential use in nanocomposites, biomedical fields, and nanodevices as well as hydrogen uptake applications. In this review, properties and applications of one-dimensional BN (1D) nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanorods in hydrogen uptake, biomedical field, and nanodevices are discussed in depth. Additionally, research on native and modified forms of BNNTs and also their composites with different materials to further improve electronic, optical, structural, mechanical, chemical, and biological properties are also reviewed. BNNTs find many applications in different areas, however, they still need to be further studied for improving the synthesis methods and finding new possible future applications.