Traffic Climate Scale (TCS) and Positive Driver Behaviours Scale (PDBS) are new measurement tools. The study aims to translate the TCS and PDBS into Chinese and to assess their factor structures in a large sample of licensed motor vehicle drivers in China. A further aim is to investigate the effects of TCS factors on drivers' behaviours and traffic accidents involvement. Data were collected using an online survey. Participants were 887 fully licensed motor vehicle drivers, including 531 males and 356 females who completed a Chinese translated questionnaire including the TCS, PDBS, Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ), items related to drivers' driving records and demographic characteristics. The result of the exploratory factor analysis revealed clear three-factor solution ('Functionality', 'External affective demand' and 'Internal requirement') of TCS with high item loadings and acceptable internal consistency coefficients. The convergent validity of the Chinese TCS was supported by its relationship with driver behaviour factors (violations, errors, lapses and positive behaviours), the traffic accidents involvement and demographic characteristics. The results further show that the external affective demand consistently and positively relate to aberrant behaviours and negatively relate to positive behaviours with indirect positive significant effects on accidents involvement. Functionality is concurrently and negatively related to aberrant behaviours and positively related to positive behaviours with no effects on accidents involvement. The internal requirement is negatively related to aberrant behaviours but, positively related to positive behaviours with positive significant direct effects on accidents involvement.