Place presence, social presence, co-presence, and satisfaction in virtual worlds


COMPUTERS & EDUCATION, vol.58, no.1, pp.154-161, 2012 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 58 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.024
  • Title of Journal : COMPUTERS & EDUCATION
  • Page Numbers: pp.154-161
  • Keywords: Distance education and telelearning, Interactive learning environments, Media in education, Multimedia/hypermedia systems, Simulations, SMALL-GROUP BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURE COEFFICIENTS, 2ND LIFE, ENVIRONMENT, DISTANCE, TASK


This study investigated the relationship among three types of presences, including place presence, social presence, and co-presence in virtual worlds and their relationship with satisfaction and immersive tendencies of students. Students' scores on a subjective questionnaire were analyzed. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship among the place presence, social presence, and co-presence. While social presence seemed to affect the satisfaction most, place and co-presence also affected students' satisfaction in the virtual world. Moreover, immersive tendencies of the students were related to their place and co-presence but not to their social presence. Findings highlighted the important issues for the design of virtual world environments to increase presence and satisfaction of students. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.