Finite element simulation of seawater intrusion into a quarry-site coastal aquifer, Kocaeli-Darica, Turkey

Karahanoglu N., Doyuran V.

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY, vol.44, no.4, pp.456-466, 2003 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 44 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2003
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00254-003-0780-7
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.456-466
  • Keywords: seawater intrusion modeling, BSL mining simulation, SALTWATER INTRUSION, NUMERICAL-SOLUTION, INTERFACE


A numerical simulation has been carried out to investigate the effects of below-sea-level (b.s.l.) excavation on the raw material quality of a cement quarry in Turkey. The model simulates variations in the hydrodynamic and hydrogeochemical mechanisms in the coastal aquifer upon BSL excavation. In this context, behavior of the seawater intrusion zone, changes in water levels, and salt concentrations have been simulated. In the development of the model, previous geological and hydrogeological reports of the quarry site and the near vicinity have been considered. Eleven new wells (BH-1,...BH-11) have been drilled to reveal hydrogeological features of the area and also for periodical observations of the water levels and hydrogeochemical monitoring. These wells were utilized to develop and calibrate the model to the field conditions. Physical and hydrogeochemical parameters used in the model have been evaluated using available hydrogeological data, the field test results and the related literature. The model has been verified using the field observations. It is based on the virgin conditions of the aquifer as well as on the data for years 1990 and 2001. An average raw material production rate for the cement factory was considered during development of the model, and for making future predictions. Two alternative production scenarios have been considered and probable effects of above-sea-level (a.s.l.) and b.s.l. excavations on seawater intrusion into the aquifer have been studied. Future prediction studies are based on these two production scenarios that assume 43 years of total production (30 years of a.s.l. and 13 years of b.s.l. production) in the quarry. The first scenario, Scenario I, assumes that starting from 2001, the next 30 years would be devoted only to ASL and then the remaining 13 years would be used for b.s.l. production. Scenario II, on the other hand, assumes simultaneous operations both at a.s.l. and b.s.l. levels for the next 43 years after 2001. Effects of b.s.l. production in the quarry site have been simulated accordingly, and seawater intrusion into the aquifer as well as water discharge rates have been predicted for -10, -20 and -30 m production levels.