Calibrating the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous shallow and deep marine bioevents by quantitative biostratigraphy: A synthesis from the Pontides Carbonate Platform (Turkey)


Earth-Science Reviews, vol.231, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 231
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2022.104071
  • Title of Journal : Earth-Science Reviews
  • Keywords: Graphic correlation, Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary, Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous bioevents, Pontides Carbonate Platform, Unitary Associations


© 2022 Elsevier B.V.The Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous is an interval of unstandardized stages and includes the only Mesozoic system boundary without a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point – the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary. Recent researches have been mainly focused on deep marine continuous successions from the Tethyan region and provided important progress in calibration of pelagic bioevents. Correlation of these pelagic zonations with the schemes from shallow marine deposits is still obscure. Biostratigraphical data from marginal carbonates containing fossils both from the platform and basinal facies can provide the required links between these two distinct depositional environments. This kind of Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous carbonates widely crop out in the Pontides (northern Turkey) in close association with related shallow and deep marine successions. A biostratigraphical dataset including 17 stratigraphical sections from this Pontides Carbonate Platform is synthesized. The fossil data include organisms from various depositional environments (i.e., benthic and planktonic foraminifers, calpionellids, algae, microencrusters and crinoids) and provides 139 bioevent datums (stratigraphic levels). This fossil dataset is analyzed through the methods of Graphic Correlation (GC) and Unitary Associations (UA) in order to overcome facies (past depositional conditions) controlled local biohorizons and calibrate fossil datums from unrelated phylogenies. Calibration of the Pontides Composite Reference Section (CSRS) with the Geological Time Scale (2020) reveals relative positions of both shallow and deep marine bioevents with respect to the Oxfordian–Hauterivian stage boundaries. The Tithonian/Berriasian and the Berriasian/Valanginian boundaries can be easily delineated by calpionellid bioevents in pelagic successions. However, no synchronous shallow marine first/last occurrence bioevents are available for both of these levels. Increased rates of originations toward Berriasian provide clustering of bioevents around the Tithonian/Berriasian boundary and brackets for both pelagic and shallow marine deposits. Several last occurrences provide unreliable approximations for the Berriasian/Valanginian boundary in neritic deposits. The species richness declines mid-Berriasian onward in accordance with the general trend toward lower sea levels through the late Tithonian into the Valanginian that diminished shallow marine factories and paved the way for a general Valanginian–Hauterivian drowning phase for the Tethyan carbonate platforms. This also adds difficulties in finding reliable origination events in the shallow marine environments for this extinction dominated interval.