Observed seismic performance of buildings and bridges during a major earthquake followed by one other major earthquake in the close vicinity of the first one

CANER A., Cinar M., Ates A. D.

Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10518-024-01917-w
  • Journal Name: Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Compendex, Geobase, INSPEC, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Bridge, Building, Damage, Ductility, Seismic
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In the recent 2023 major earthquake triggering one other large earthquake in Anatolia, the poor structural performance of buildings and the satisfactory performance of bridges remained relatively consistent compared to past observed earthquake experiences. Despite numerous building collapses, it is worth noting that no bridges collapsed during the event. Several engineering factors for poor building performance have been identified based on field building inspections in the recent and past earthquakes, such as the misuse of building design software without proper engineering judgment, the utilization of poor-quality construction materials, underestimation of earthquake forces, construction on inadequate soil conditions, design mistakes, and incorrect implementation of high ductility reinforcement details. In the aftermath of the earthquake, it was found that only a small percentage of bridges (1%) were closed, and approximately 50% of them were reopened to traffic within 24 h. Remarkably, no bridge collapses including the modern or old bridges were reported in the affected area. The focus of this paper is to identify the differences in the design philosophy between buildings and bridges and to understand the reasons behind the bridges’ resilience during these rare earthquakes. The study involves analyzing past structural performances of buildings and bridges under different earthquake conditions and design requirements. Analytical results from a survived 90-year-old reinforced concrete arch railroad bridge, highlighting its resilience and design characteristics are also presented.