In vitro and in vivo properties of graphene-incorporated scaffolds for bone defect repair

Jodati H., Yilmaz B., EVİS Z.

Ceramics International, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2021.07.136
  • Title of Journal : Ceramics International


© 2021 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.The employment of graphene and its derivatives, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, is extending from bioimaging and fabrications of biosensors to drug delivery and tissue engineering in the biomedical area. Graphene family-incorporated scaffolds, used in bone tissue engineering and bone regenerative medicine, profit superior properties of these materials, such as enhanced mechanical properties, large surface area, and the existence of functional groups. At the same time, problems related to cytotoxicity and adverse immune response of graphene family are solved when they are applied to produce 3-dimensional scaffolds. The objective of this review is to focus on in vitro properties of scaffolds consisting of graphene or its derivatives, especially osteogenic and antibacterial properties, as well as the influence of graphene and its derivatives on in vivo performances of implanted bone scaffolds. The positive effect of graphene and its two derivatives on attachment, and cell proliferation, as well as in vitro osteogenic differentiation of different cells was undeniable. Besides, the synergetic outcome of using graphene family on the antibacterial feature of scaffolds, especially incorporation with the silver element, was effective. Moreover, successful treatment of critical-sized bone defects was reported during in vivo preclinical tests when graphene or its derivatives-incorporated scaffolds were used. However, the limited number of in vivo studies should be considered as one of the main shortcomings to use graphene as a promising candidate for treating bone defects. It is anticipated that the increased number of well-designed preclinical studies could improve the applications of graphene incorporated scaffolds in bone tissue engineering/regeneration, and find out explanations and appropriate solutions to possible long-term toxicity and nonbiodegradability of these materials.