Mode-method interaction: the effects of inquıry vs. expository and blended vs. face-to-face instruction on 9th grade students’ achievement in, scıence process skills in and attitudes towards physics

Thesis Type: Doctorate

Institution Of The Thesis: Middle East Technical University, Turkey

Approval Date: 2013

Thesis Language: English

Student: Ali Çetin



The purpose of this study is to find out the main effects of instructional modes (blended and face-to-face), teaching methods (inquiry and expository) and the interaction effects between them on 9th grade students’ physics achievements, science process skills, and attitudes towards physics. To achieve this purpose, 2x2 factorial design with four treatment groups were constructed, blended inquiry (W-INQU), blended expository(W-EXPO), face-to-face inquiry (INQU), and face-to-face expository (EXPO). Two web environments, Web Based Inquiry Learning Environment-WILE and Web Based Expository Learning Environment- WELE, were developed and used in blended mode with inquiry and expository teaching methods. Internet accesibilities and technological availabilities of the schools in Çankaya were used as two criteria of purposive sampling procedure, and then two private and two Anatolian High Schools in Çankaya were selected as a convenience sampling. The classes were randomly assigned to the treatment groups. 253 students’ scores were used for inferential statistics. The implementation of this study took six weeks in 2009-2010 academic year. Three instruments were used to gather data: electricity achievement test, science process skills test, and physics attitude scale. These instruments were administered both as pretests and as posttests. The data were analyzed by using Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA). The results revealed that: (1) blended instruction is more effective than face-to-face instruction in supporting students’ conceptual understanding of electricity and their science process skills. (2) The inquiry teaching method is as effective as the expository teaching method when students’ mean academic achievement, science process skills, and attitude scores are compared. (3) No interaction effect was found between teaching methods and instructional modes.