Evaluation of biodeterioration in Nemrut Mount Monument and temple of Augustus by using various techniques


Thesis Type: Postgraduate

Institution Of The Thesis: Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology, Turkey

Approval Date: 2011

Student: ELİF SIRT

Supervisor: AYŞE GÜL GÖZEN

Abstract:

Different techniques were studied to evaluate the presence of different microorganisms that played important roles in decay processes of historic stones. In that scope, limestones and sandstones from Nemrut Mount Monument, and marbles and andesites from Temple of Augustus were studied. For measurement of enzymatic activity, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis method previously applied to assess soil microbial activity was carried out. Total microflora method based on countings of colony number was conducted for determination of the level of bacterial and fungal activity of stones. ATP bioluminescence method, developed for the field of hygiene monitoring, was carried out in order to detect global metabolic activity degree in historic stones. Most probable number (MPN) method was carried out to detect the number of microbial cells, namely nitrifying and sulphur oxidising bacteria which could take part in the decay processes. Moreover, fungi identification was done for determining occurance of detrimental species. Presence of lichenic and algal zones existed on stones of Nemrut Mount Monument and the presence of black discolorations on stones of Temple of Augustus was common. Results have shown that the bacterial and fungal activity was low, however considerable quantity of FDA hydrolyses has shown the importance of algal population in the stones of two studied historical sites. This study has proved that FDA hydrolyses, total microflora and MPN method were efficient for the evaluation of biodeterioration in historic stones.