Effects of internal, external and preference of attentional focus feedback on learning volleyball "tennis" serve of 12-13 years old children

Thesis Type: Postgraduate

Institution Of The Thesis: Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Faculty of Education, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Turkey

Approval Date: 2007




The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of internal and external focus feedback and their preference on skill learning at age of 12-13 years. Internal focus feedback related with body movements, whereas external focus feedbacks related with movement effects. As a task “tennis” service in volleyball was used for both acquisition and retention measurements. The subjects (N=78) were randomly assigned to three groups which were internal focus feedback group (IFF), external focus feedback group (EFF) and preference groups (PF). To promote learning three practice days and to assess learning one retention day was applied. Also, during these days, both technique of the skill and targeting was tried to measure. In technique measure the IFF group performed better than EFF group in acquisition and retention phases. PF group had similar scores with IFF group in acquisition phase whereas it did not show better performance than IFF group in retention phase. PF group performed better than EFF group in both phases. In product measure, significant differences between attentional focus feedback groups in acquisition and retention phases. This study indicated that for young children with limited amount of knowledge about a skill internal focus feedback is more appropriate compared to external focus feedback in terms of retention. Being able to choose among internal and external focus of attention also seems to make a difference in retention performance of novice children indicating that active participation on the learning variables is an important concept.