Synthesis and characterization of clinoptilolite

Thesis Type: Postgraduate

Institution Of The Thesis: Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Turkey

Approval Date: 2005




Clinoptilolite is the most abundant zeolite mineral in nature. In this study a reproducible synthesis recipe for clinoptilolite was established and the limits of the crystallization field were developed by changing synthesis parameters such as temperature, composition and the nature of reactants. Clinoptilolite was reproducibly synthesized as a pure phase and in high yield at 140oC using a benchmark batch composition of 2.1 Na2O:Al2O3:10SiO2:110.1 H2O. Clinoptilolite was crystallized from 10wt% or 28wt% seeded systems while it was not formed if no seeds were present. Clinoptilolite was also crystallized as a pure phase when the cation in the benchmark batch composition was Na,K mixture, or when alkali salts such as carbonates or chlorides were used besides alkali hydroxides, or when the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio was in the range of 10-12. Clinoptilolite was still crystallized as a single phase when alkali hydroxides in the batch were reduced by 20%. With the benchmark batch composition, clinoptilolite was crystallized in pure phase form at 100oC, 120oC, 140oC and 160oC while synthesis at 175oC resulted in the formation of pure mordenite. At 140oC clinoptilolite was crystallized together with Linde L when cation in the benchmark composition is only potassium. Phillipsite crystallized together with clinoptilolite at SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 8 to 9. At SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of 6 or 4, phillipsite or analcime was formed as pure phase respectively. When the alkali hydroxides in the batch was increased by 20%, sanidine was formed. Use of reactive aluminosilicate gels enhanced the formation of clinoptilolite while attempts to use mineral raw materials were unsuccessful. For both Na and (Na,K)-clinoptilolite, Si/Al ratio of products were greater than four. Thermal stability of synthetic clinoptilolites were comparable with natural clinoptilolite and potassium ion increased thermal stability of