Thesis Type: Doctorate
Institution Of The Thesis: Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Turkey
Approval Date: 2008
Student: SEMİN ÖZGE ÖZKOÇ
Co-Supervisor: SERPİL ŞAHİN, SERVET GÜLÜM ŞÜMNÜAbstract:
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different gums and their combination on quality and staling of breads baked in different ovens. In the first part of the study, the effects of gums (xanthan, guar, k-carrageenan, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, locust bean gum and their blends) on quality of breads baked in infrared-microwave combination and conventional ovens were investigated. In addition, macro and micro-structure, dielectric and thermal properties and acrylamide content of breads were studied. Xanthan-guar blend addition improved bread quality with increasing specific volume and porosity values and decreasing hardness values of samples. More homogeneous closed-cell structure for conventionally baked control breads and channel formed cell structure for breads baked in infraredmicrowave combination oven were observed. Dielectric properties of breads were found to be a function of gum type. No acrylamide was formed in microwave baked breads. Breads baked in infrared-microwave combination oven had similar acrylamide content with conventionally baked ones. The second part of the study focused on staling. The hardness, retrogradation enthalpy, set back viscosity, FTIR outputs and crystallinity values of microwave-baked samples were found to be the highest. Infraredmicrowave combination heating made it possible to produce breads with similar staling degrees as conventionally baked ones and reduced the conventional baking time of breads by about 39%. Addition of xanthan-guar blend decreased hardness, retrogradation enthalpy and crystallinity values of breads. According to hardness data, in the presence of xanthan-guar blend staling of breads baked in all types of ovens was delayed for 1 day.