Photo-oxidative degradation of ABS copolymer

Thesis Type: Postgraduate

Institution Of The Thesis: Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Turkey

Approval Date: 2009




Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymer is one of the most popular copolymer having an elastomeric butadiene phase dispersed in rigid amorphous styrene and semi-crystalline acrylonitrile. Due to double bonds in the polybutadiene phase, ABS copolymers are very sensitive to photo-oxidative degradation. Photo-oxidation of butadiene rubber phase results in the formation of chromorphores and these chromorphores act as initiators in photo-oxidative degradation and after a while ABS starts yellowing. In this work, the relationship between the UV light and the yellowing of ABS samples was also investigated with respect to time. In this study, pure, light stabilized and commercial ABS samples were aged under UV light. As the UV light intensity increased from 800 to 2800 W/cm2, yellowing of the samples were increased for pure ABS. This increase in yellowing of the samples was about 27 times higher compared to lower energy. In this study, UV stabilizers IRGANOX 1076 (sterically hindered phenolic antioxidant), IRGAFOS 168 (hydrolycally stable phosphite stabilizer) and TINUVIN P (hydroxyphenol benzotriazole) were used alone or in combination with each other. Pure ABS samples, commercial ABS samples and UV stabilized ABS samples were aged under the same UV light. UV aging degradation was followed by measuring the yellowness of the samples at certain time intervals. Yellowness of the samples was followed by using Coloreye XTH Spectrometer. Degradation in ABS, however, was followed by using FTIR with an increase in the peak area of carbonyl groups in the ABS matrix. Both color analysis and the FTIR analysis showed that combination of the IRGANOX 1076 and IRGAFOS 168 stabilizers gave the best stabilization. This revealed that combination of phenol and phosphate containing stabilizer is the most useful combination to prevent photo-oxidative degradation of ABS copolymer. Additionally, vegetable oil was applied to the surface of a new set of ABS samples and these samples were aged for 700 h. Yellowing tendency of these samples was compared with the yellowing tendency of ABS samples that are directly aged for 500 h. It was clearly observed that samples with oil smeared had more resistance to UV radiation with respect to others. This shows that oil acts protective layer to the UV light and oxygen and slow down the photo-oxidative degradation. Lastly some commercial ABS samples were compared to each other with respect to their yellowing tendency. Commercial ABS samples coded as K, L, A, B, C and D were aged under UV light at about 500 h. Sample A showed the best resistance against the yellowing among the other commercial ABS samples.